History of Peru
History – The most important It goes back to about 20 thousand years a.c. Approximately, therefore, when the territory began to be populated with groups of men and women, hunters and gatherers. The theories differ as to the origin of the American man. Besides that, is it the native American culture or the result of Asian migration? Apparently, the second hypothesis with much more anthropological, archaeological and literary evidence (legends and traditions).
In the same way In the territory of South America developed real civilizations that we call “preincas”; the most important were:
In the Coast: Chimú, Nazca, Paracas.
In the Sierra: Chavín, Tiahuanaco.
The Chavín culture was the oldest in Peru: 1000 – 250 a.c. Its main center is located in Chavín de Huántar, in the Ancash region. From then on, the peoples of South America developed in diverse cultural facets: architecture, economy, religion, etc.
Map of the Inca culture.
The Inca Empire was the strongest in the region, because together with the Mayan and Aztec peoples. Its antiquity dates from 1200 AD. The main center was the city of Cusco, from where more than 40,000 km of roads were administered and as a result hundreds of conquered cities. According to the legend, the Incas emerged from the migration of the founders of the Tiahuanaco region; specifically, Manco Cápac and Mama Ocllo “History “ would have left Lake Titicaca to found the capital of civilization, commissioned by the Sun God. Thus, different rulers followed who made the Empire a great nation.
According to historians, the Incas who ruled it can be in two dynasties: the Legendary or Mythical Incario (from 1200 AD to 1410 AD) and the Historical Incario (from 1438 to 1532).
Precisely, when the last two Incas, Huáscar and Atahuallpa, were contesting the throne of the Empire, the Spanish conquerors made their appearance from Central America, went to Tumbes, to Cusco.
Conquest: “History of Peru”
The conquest was a traumatic and difficult period, undoubtedly for both the indigenous natives and the new European rulers. It meant a radical change in the composition of society and in the worldview of the inhabitants of Peru. Probably From this moment, the viceroyalty was called “Peru”, and politically it was organized in municipalities and governorates, always in charge of the peninsular authorities.
This is the time of the great campaigns of evangelization and indoctrination, in order to make Peru an authentic Spanish colony. The attempts of rebellion did not wait; the largest was the one led by the cacique Tupac Amaru II, who brought together people of all races and social classes against the Spanish Crown; finally, he was defeated. When it was supposed that the impossibility of freedom, the own crisis of the viceroyalty and, especially, a social class – the Creoles in Peru – were the main agents of the future Independence of Peru.
Republic: “History of Peru”
This stage was born in 1821, with the swearing in of Independence in the city of Lima, a position of the Argentine José de San Martín “History “, who, along with the Venezuelan Simón Bolívar, had directed military campaigns, constituted by an army of different regions of the Viceroyalty. However, two more battles (Ayacucho and Junín) were necessary in 1824 to finally seal Independence.
Once the freedom of Spain was achieved, the biggest problem for the young republics was the political organization and the consensus of social social groups. How to get Peru to develop independently? Which group should direct this development? Which is the most suitable to govern Peru? These have been the major questions since the appearance of the Republic, and their lack of resolution has brought the most decisive problems to the country. From the first wars between the military to the struggles between the political organizations of recent years, Peru seems to have not yet achieved the right formula to achieve its goals.