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Lima is the capital city of the Republic of Peru.  It is located on the central coast of the country, on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, forming an extensive and populous urban area known as Metropolitan Lima, flanked by the coastal desert and extended over the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. According to the Peruvian census of 2007, Lima had more than 7.6 million inhabitants, while  with the urban agglomeration had more than 8.5 million inhabitants, 30% of the Peruvian population, figures that the converted in the most populated city in the country.

On January 18, 1535, the Spanish foundation was made with the name of the City of Kings in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time. It was the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and the largest and most important city in South America during Spanish imperial America. After Independence it became the capital of the Republic.

At present it is considered as the political, cultural, financial and commercial center of the country. At the international level, it is the third most populous metropolitan area in Latin America, besides the city it occupies the fifth place among the most populated cities in Latin America and one of the most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a global city of «beta class» .

Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends mainly within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomies since 2002.



The current valley of the Rímac river was called Rimaq (pronounced [li.maq] according to the pronunciation of the Lambdacism of coastal Quechua and as [ɾi.maq] in the variants of the sierra) as a reference to the construction that is now known as huaca de Santa Ana (“the guaca of the Indians of Lima who dezían ychmas, it was a round stone”).  As in other place names, the final occlusive ended up being eliminated when passing to the Spanish language, with Lima being preferred over time. after coexisting in documents with the forms Limac and Lyma.

At the origin of this place name, as it happened with many others in the New World, it is very likely that the Spaniards would easily accept the one already used by the aboriginal communities, mutating it by another of very similar sonority extracted from the Iberian geography. In this case they were able to apply the Limia river, cross-border between Portugal and Spain, whose Portuguese name is Lima river.

When it was founded on January 18, it was given the name of Ciudad de los Reyes due to the proximity of the date with January 6, the day of the Three Kings and perhaps also as a tribute to the Kings of Spain: Juana I and Carlos I. However, the place name of the region was always kept, which little by little was consolidated on the foundational name, reason for which the new populated center ended up being known as the city of Lima. The name of the river, on the other hand, was altered its spelling according to the uses of the Third Limense Council influenced by Aymara pronunciation habits,  as it happened with many other place-names of Quechua origin.




Historically, it is known as the “Standard of the City of the Kings of Peru.” 12 It is formed by a silk cloth colored gualda and in the center is the coat of arms of the embroidered city.


The Coat of Arms of Lima was granted by the Spanish Crown on December 7, 1537 by Royal Decree signed in Valladolid by Emperor Charles V and his mother Queen Joan of Castile, endowing the city with the shield. formed by a main azure field, with three crowns of gold of kings placed in triangle and on top of them a gold star that touches with its tips the three crowns, and by the gold letters that says: Hoc signum vere regum est (East is the name of the kings).  Outside the shield are the initials I and K (Ioana and Karolus), which are the names of Queen Juana I and her son Carlos I. On the letters is placed a star and hugging two eagles faced with saber crowned, holding the shield.


The hymn of Lima was heard for the first time on January 18, 2008, in a solemn session that was attended by the then President of Peru Alan García, the mayor of the city Luis Castañeda Lossio and several authorities. Those responsible for the creation of the hero were the regidores Luis Enrique Tord (author of the lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (composer of the melody) and the musical producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger).



Prehispanic era

Although the history of the city of Lima began with its Spanish foundation in 1535, the territory formed by the valleys of the rivers Rímac, Chillón and Lurín was occupied by pre-Inca settlements, which were grouped under the lordship of Ichma. Maranga and the Lima culture were the ones that were established and forged an identity in these territories, during those times the sanctuaries of Lati (present Puruchuco) and Pachacámac (the main pilgrimage sanctuary during the Inca period) were built.

These cultures were conquered by the Wari Empire during the height of its imperial expansion, and during this time the ceremonial center of Cajamarquilla was built.1 With the decline of the Wari importance, local cultures regained their autonomy, highlighting the Chancay culture Later, in the 15th century, these territories were incorporated into the Inca empire.From this time we can find a wide variety of huacas throughout the city, some of which are under investigation.

The most important or known are those of Huallamarca, Pucllana and Mateo Salado, all located in the middle of Lima districts with a very high urban growth, which is why they are surrounded by business and residential buildings; however, that does not hinder its perfect state of conservation. On the outskirts of the city are the ruins of Pachacámac, an important religious center built by the Lima culture 3000 years ago and which was used even until the time when the Spanish conquerors arrived.



Flora and fauna

The flora of the capital is made up of a great variety of herbs, plants, shrubs and trees that grow on the hills and on the riparian mountains. The amancay is the typical flower of the city, is endemic to the coastal hills of Peru and only appears in the cold and cloudy season.Other species that are part of the flora of Lima are the begonia, the nettle, the ficus, the ponciana , the elephant ear, the olive tree and the geranium In terms of fauna, in the city you can find more than a hundred different species of birds, the most common being the domestic pigeon or dove of Castilla, the cuculí, the Goldfinches and sparrows,

Protected areas

The city of Lima has two natural areas protected by the National Service of Natural Protected Areas by the State, the Pantanos de Villa wildlife refuge and the Lomas de Ancón reserved area. The Pantanos de Villa are located in the district of Chorrillos, are natural wetlands that allow nesting and transit of migratory birds and residents.The Lomas de Ancón are located in the district of Ancón. They cover an area of ​​10,962.14 hectares, it was named a reserved zone since in the place they have found a great variety of flora not seen in other areas.

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